Framework Published to Guide Development of PGx Public Policy, Applied in Canada

The paper, “The 3-I framework: a framework for developing public policies regarding pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing in Canada” was published last week in NRC Research Press. It presents a political science framework of considering ideas, interests, and institutions to identify challenges and needs for PGx implementation. The analysis is presented as a tool to guide policy development, with the goal of increasing PGx usage in clinical care. The article gives a review of the status of PGx policy and needs in Canada now, and compares it to key policies in other countries. These policies include the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act in the US and the contracts to prevent the disclosure of direct-to-consumer testing results to insurers in the UK.  We present this article as an example of conversations and tools around PGx policy development, and of how different countries are approaching the increasing usage of PGx in clinical care. If you are interested in learning more about implementation guidelines in the US, see the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) at

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